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1860-1880

Mrs Beeton, Alice In Wonderland, the establishment of the FA and the first fish and chip shop

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1860: Plane Algebraical Geometry

Syllabus Of Plane Algebraical Geometry is the book Lewis Carroll sent to Queen Victoria when she asked to read more of his work - she wasn't expecting a mathematics treatise by an Oxford don!

Alice In Wonderland

1860: First fish and chip shop

Joseph Malin's shop on Cleveland Street, London, serves England's first fast food, fish and chip combination.

1860: Madox Brown's The Last Of England

Set on board a storm-tossed ship, this popular painting shows a family beginning their emigration to Australia from Dover. Ford Madox Brown was a member of the Pre-Raphaelite group of painters but chose incidents and people from everyday life as the subjects of his paintings. He produced two versions of this picture; the first was begun in 1852.

1861: Mrs Beeton's Household Management

An opportunistic money-making idea by an enterprising publisher and his journalist wife, the first complete edition contained 4,000 recipes and 700 illustrations, as well as being a comprehensive guide to running a household. Although Isabella Beeton herself died only seven years after the first book (at the age 28), the "Mrs Beeton" franchise went on helping home-makers for many years.

1861: William Morris founds "the Firm"

Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company was founded with the radical idea of bringing together artists and craftsmen to create what Morris called an "earthly paradise". They specialised in decorative arts, including stained glass, carving, furniture, wallpaper, carpets and tapestries. Their designs were inspired by nature and are recognisable the world over even today.

1861: London Labour And The London Poor

Journalist Henry Mayhew created a comprehensive portrait of the lives of London's poor by interviewing hundreds of people on the streets of London. His remarkable book brings Victorian existence on the breadline vividly and shockingly to life. Mayhew's book includes interviews with a Punch and Judy man and South Asian street workers, reflecting the diversity of London's population. It was influential, along with the writings of Charles Dickens, in bringing the plight of the poor to the attention of the ruling elite.

Punch and Judy

14 Dec 1861: Prince Albert dies

Albert dies of typhoid fever at Windsor Castle. The Queen is inconsolable and remains in seclusion for ten years. Her obsessive grieving was a major factor in the development of the Victorians' fetish for death and all things related to mourning.

1862: The Water Babies serialised

Charles Kingsley's great educational, satirical, whimsical story about a chimney sweep is serialised in MacMillan's Magazine.

Alice In Wonderland

04 Jul 1862: Charles Dodgson goes on a boat trip

Charles Dodgson takes out three sisters from the Liddell family, including Alice, for a boat trip and a picnic. While they are rowing along the Isis he improvises the story that becomes Alice's Adventures In Wonderland.

Alice In Wonderland

1863: First Northern fish and chip shop

Opening three years later than in London, Mr Lee brings the fast food innovation of fish and chips to the people of Mossley, Lancashire.

1863: Mrs Cameron's first camera

Julia Margaret Cameron is given a camera by her two daughters and instantly falls in love with what it can do. She is one of the most important figures in the early history of photography. Mrs Cameron lived in Dimbola Lodge on the Isle of Wight, named after her family's tea estates in Ceylon. She was friends with and photographed many of the prominent figures of her day – guests at her home included Tennyson, Darwin, Watts and Thackeray as well as Lewis Carroll, Robert Browning, Holman Hunt, Palgrave, Edward Lear and Ellen Terry. Her photographs were used as illustrations for the second volume of Tennyson's Idylls Of The King and reprints of her work sold in their thousands.

Alice In Wonderland

10 Jan 1863: First Tube line opens

Metropolitan Railway opens the world's first underground railway between Bishop's Road, Paddington, and Farringdon Street. You could have gone to see London's last public hanging by Tube!

Oct 1863: Football Association founded

A meeting at the Freemason's Tavern in London sets up the Football Association, establishing once and for all the unified system of rules we have today.

The FA Cup

1864: The Cricketer's Almanack

John Wisden's little book of cricketing statistics and information is first published. A national institution.

1864: Clifton Suspension Bridge completed

After Thomas Telford had declared himself the winner of the first competition to build a bridge across the Avon in Bristol, a second competition was held because Telford's design was not popular. Isambard Kingdom Brunel won and it was to be his first major commission. The project was beset with political and financial difficulties and eventually abandoned. The Bridge is finally completed this year as a memorial to Brunel after his death.

1865: First female doctor

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was the first woman to be granted a doctor's licence

July 1865: Alice's Adventures In Wonderland

Published by Macmillan, the original illustrations by Carroll were replaced with those by Tenniel.

Alice In Wonderland

02 Jul 1865: Christian Mission's first meeting

Organised by William Booth this later becomes the Salvation Army in 1878.

1866: Football match to last 90 minutes

At a match between London and Sheffield it was officially decided that a game should last 90 minutes – and exactly how heavy and big the ball should be.

The FA Cup

06 Sep 1866: Close finish in "Tea Derby"

Races were held between tea clippers bringing tea to England from China. The captain of the winning ship got a £100 bonus. Large bets were placed on the outcome and tea party hosts prided themselves on serving tea brought by the winning ship. In 1866 there was a particularly close finish, with two ships docking within half an hour of each after a journey of more than three months!

A Cup of Tea

1867: Marx publishes Das Kapital

Marx researched the material for this book in the British Library Reading Room

25 May 1868: First meeting of the TUC

The first meeting of the Trades Union Congress is held in Manchester. The TUC represents Britain's 71 Trades Unions and has more than seven million members.

26 May 1868: Last public hanging in England

Michael Barrett was hung at Newgate for the Fenian bombing at Clerkenwell that killed seven people. After the explosion, Queen Victoria received a letter from 22,000 Irish people living in London pledging their loyalty and condemning the perpetrators.

1869: Synagogue built in Princelet Street

A large synagogue is built in the garden of 19 Princelet Street by Huguenot refugees, now occupied by the next wave of immigrants, the Jewish community from Eastern Europe. The synagogue is now disused but you can visit the building and explore.

1869: Suez Canal opens

This canal provided a route between Europe and Asia without having to sail round Africa. It transformed trade routes by vastly reducing the length and danger of journeys. Tea clippers fell from favour when they were replaced by steam propulsion rather than sail power.

A Cup of Tea

22 Nov 1869: Cutty Sark launched

Tea clipper the Cutty Sark is launched at Linton's shipyard on the Clyde. She never won the infamous "Tea Derby" (see 1866) but in her later incarnation working in the wool trade, she was repeatedly the fastest home from Australia.

A Cup of Tea

14 Aug 1870: Elementary Education Act

This act made provisions for the education for all children under 13. In less than four years more than 5,000 new schools had been opened.

1871: Battersea Dogs find a home

The Temporary Home for Lost and Starving Dogs moves to Battersea

1871: Middlemarch published

Middlemarch: A Study In Provincial Life is George Eliot's masterpiece, combining social and political observation with strong characters and interweaving stories. One of the defining English novels.

1871: Thomas Lipton's first shop opens

Glaswegian Thomas Lipton opens his first tea shop to sell tea directly imported from Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). His slogan was "Direct from the tea gardens to the teapot", and later "Accept no substitutes".

A Cup of Tea

1871: Through The Looking-Glass published

Through The Looking-Glass And What Alice Found There is the sequel to Alice's Adventures In Wonderland by Lewis Carroll

Alice In Wonderland

20 Jul 1871: FA Cup established

The proposal for a knockout competition for clubs belonging to the Football Association was adopted at an FA committee meeting at the offices of The Sportsman newspaper. The first competition took place the following year with just 15 teams entering. The winners were the Wanderers, a team made up of ex-public school and university players.

The FA Cup

1872: Voting by ballot introduced

The introduction of the secret ballot, whereby each individual records their vote anonymously on a piece of paper which is stored in a secure box until the count was one of the things the Chartists had agitated for earlier in the century. A landmark in the democratic process.

1872: First international football match

The world's first-ever international fixture took place between England and Scotland. Disappointingly, the match ended in a goalless draw.

The FA Cup

1872: Cameron photographs Alice Liddell

Alice is now a woman rather than the child familiar from Lewis Carroll's photographic portraits of her.

Alice In Wonderland

1875: Henry Croft is first Pearly King

Henry Croft was a municipal road sweeper and he began to collect all the buttons he found and sewed them on his clothes in the way that the Costermongers did. Soon he had covered an entire suit in them. The idea was to draw attention to himself in order to raise money for charity. When Henry died in 1930 it is estimated that he had collected the equivalent of £200,000.

1875: Plimsoll Line first drawn

The Plimsoll Line establishes the legal load on cargo ships: if a ship is lower in the water than this line painted on her hull then she is not safe to sail.